BT301 Assignment 2 Solution 2021 - VU Answer

BT301 Assignment 2 Solution Spring 2021


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10 Key Difference between YAC and BAC Vectors.


What are YAC vectors?


Vectors are used in molecular cloning. A vector can be defined as a DNA molecule that acts as a vehicle for the transport of foreign genetic material to another cell. A vector that contains foreign DNA is called recombinant DNA and must have the ability to replicate and express itself. The yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) and the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) are two types of vectors that are involved in cloning. Chromosome to insert large sections of genetic material into yeast cells, while BAC is an artificially constructed vector system that uses a specific region of E. coli. Chromosome to insert large segments of DNA into E. coli cells. 

YAC (Yeast Artificial Chromosome) is an artificially constructed chromosome that has the ability to carry a large segment of foreign DNA and to replicate in yeast cells. It has a centromere, telomeres, and autonomously replicating sequences that are essential for replication and stability. YAC must also carry one or more selective markers and restriction sites to make it an efficient cloning vector. A large sequence from 1000 kb to 2000 kb can be inserted into YAC and transferred to yeast. The transformation efficiency of YAC is very low.

Figure: YAC Vector

Difference Between YAC and BAC Vectors

What are BAC Vectors? 

 (BAC) is an artificially built chromosome for the purpose of molecular cloning. It has specific regions of E. coli F plasmid and it’s circular and supercoiled. BAC is made to clone DNA fragments to bacteria, with Special Emphasis on E. coli. It can tolerate DNA fragments with sizes up to 300 kb. Compared to YAC, BAC cloning inserts are smaller in size. BACs were first developed in 1992 and it is still famous for the reason of its stability and ease of construction. 

BACs do also assist in developing vaccines.

Figure: BAC Vector Molecular in Cloning

Key Difference - YAC vs BAC Vectors

Difference between YAC and BAC Vector

1. Gender 

YACs were designed to clone large fragments of genomic DNA into yeast. 

BACs were developed for cloning large genomic fragments into Escherichia coli. 

2. Insert Length 

YACs can contain megabase-sized genomic inserts.(1000 kb – 2000 kb). 

BACs can carry inserts of 200–300 kb or less. 

3. Construction 

YAC DNA is difficult to purify intact and requires high concentration for generating YAC vector system. 

BAC is easy to purify intact and can be easily constructed. 

4. Chimerism 

YACs are often chimeric. 

BACs are rarely chimeric. 

5. Stability 

YAC is unstable. 

BAC is stable. 

6. Purpose

YAC is a genetically engineered chromosome with the use of yeast DNA for the purpose of cloning.

BAC is a genetically engineered DNA molecule using E. coli DNA for the purpose of cloning. 

7. Modifications 

Yeast recombination is very feasible and always remains active. Hence it can generate deletions and other rearrangements in a YAC. 

E. coli recombination is prevented and is turned on when required. Hence, it reduces the unwanted rearrangements in BACs. 

8. Maintenance 

YAC is a genetically engineered chromosome with the use of yeast DNA for the purpose of cloning. 

BAC is a genetically engineered DNA molecule using E. coli DNA for the purpose of cloning.

9. Construction and Development  

These were developed in 1987 by Burke Its Construction is based upon the regions of yeast Chromosome like ARS.

Developed in 1992 by Melsimon BAC is a DNA construct based on Functional fertility plasmid of E.coli 


10. AmpR & T7 and SP6 

AmpR_selectable marker genes for selection of Transformed cells 

T7 and SP6-Promote transcription of inset gene 

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